APA requires that the paper that is entire double-spaced, including all of the lines within the reference list.

APA requires that the paper that is entire double-spaced, including all of the lines within the reference list.

This guide is dependent on the Publication Manual associated with American Psychological Association, 6th ed. It provides citation that is selected for common types of sources. For more descriptive information please consult a print copy associated with style manual.

When it comes to printing results that are best for this guide, use the printer-friendly PDF format.

Review the Sample paper from the APA, with types of many APA rules.

Keep an eye on your document references/citations and format your reference lists easily with citation management software.

Number all pages consecutively, you start with the title page, in Arabic numerals (e.g., 4, not IV) within the upper corner that is right-handRule 8.03, p. 230).

You need to cite and document any sources that you have consulted, even although you presented the ideas from these sources is likely to words. You’ll want to cite:

  • to determine other individuals’s ideas and information used in your essay.
  • to see your reader of one’s paper where they should look when they would you like to get the sources that are same.

A citation must come in two places in your essay:

  • in your body of the text (“in-text citations”).
  • into the reference list (at the end of the paper).

To introduce other folks’s ideas in text, use the following examples:

Richardson argues, relates to, explains, hypothesizes, compares, concludes; As Littlewood and Sherwin demonstrated, proved, . etc.

Spelling: Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary print or online may be the spelling that is standard for APA journals and books (Rule 4.12, p. 96).

Reference in text

Capitalize all words that are major titles of books and articles in the body for the paper (Rule 4.15, p.101). E.g.

In the book Greek Political Thought (2006), Balot argues that. The criticism regarding the article, “The Politics of Paraliterary Criticism”.

NOTE: In reference lists, however, capitalize only the word that is first of title and of the subtitle (after a colon or em dash) and proper nouns.

When quoting from print sources or online articles, supply the author, year, and page number in parentheses (Rule 6.03, pp.170-171). For example:

Mooney (2000) discovered that . “direct_quotation” (p. 276). “Direct_quotation”. (Walker, 2000, p. 135).

In the event that quotation has ended 40 words, you have to start the quotation on a new line, indent the quotation about Ѕ an inch, and omit the quotation marks (Rule 6.03, p. 171).

Prince Edward Island is a curved slice of land from three to thirty-five miles wide and about one hundred and twenty miles long, lying along the southern rim associated with the Gulf of St. Lawrence and separated from the mainland of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia by the narrow waters of Northumberland Strait.(Ives, 1999, p. 1)

When paraphrasing from a source, or when referring to an basic idea contained in another work, you are encouraged to give a full page number (Rule 6.04 p. 171).

When citing the author that is same times in a paragraph, see Citing Paraphrased operate in APA Style through the APA Style Blog.

Many electronic sources do not custom writings provide page numbers. In this case, use paragraph numbers preceded by the abbreviation ‘para.’ (Rule 6.05 pp. 171-172). As an example:

(Johnson, 2003, para. 5).

If a source contains neither page nor paragraph numbers, cite the heading (shorten the heading if it’s long) (Rule 6.05 pp. 171-172).

If you have no date of publication, utilize the abbreviation (n.d.).

List two or more works by different authors that are cited in the same parentheses in alphabetical order by the first authors’ surnames and put semicolons between them (Rule 6.16 p. 177).

Reference list

In APA, the menu of sources at the final end associated with the paper (bibliography) is called the reference list. The reference list must include all references cited within the text of one’s paper.

The word References should appear towards the top of your reference list, also it must certanly be centred from the page (Rule 2.11, p. 37).

Order of references when you look at the reference list is alphabetical, by the last name of the first author (Rule 6.25, p. 181) or, if author just isn’t available – by title.

Alphabetize letter by letter. “Nothing precedes something”. ‘Brown, J. R.’ comes before ‘Browning, A. F.’.

For the author’s first name use only initials: ‘Smith, J.’, not ‘Smith, Jennifer’.

For several works by the author that is same them in your reference list by year of publication because of the earliest first – Smith, A. (1999) . Smith, A. (2002)

Second and subsequent lines of each entry are indented 1/2 inch or 5 spaces. The chosen format should be consistent throughout the references.

Double-space between all lines of the work, including references.

When citing books (not periodicals), capitalize only the first word for the title as well as the subtitle (in other words. the word that is first a colon or a dash) and proper nouns (Rule 6.29, p. 185).

If more than one city of publication is listed in the written book you are citing, make use of the first one listed.

If you have no date of publication, utilize the abbreviation (n.d.).

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